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Defoe witnessed children as young as four working in the domestic system and the waste that gathered around country cottages which did not improve the standard ad quality of life for those who had to live near such waste.
With a growing population that needed pottery a new way was needed to meet the demands that a growing population would make on Britain. This would lead to the new factories, large and deep coal mines, huge ship building ports and the growth of our industrial cities with all the problems they were to bring. Coal was needed in vast quantities for the Industrial Revolution. For centuries, people in Britain had made do with charcoal if they needed a cheap and easy to acquire fuel.
The Industrial Revolution changed all of this. It was interesting to know that John Aynsley also invested in coal mining in Fenton Park colliery in with another famous pottery family Joshua Spode. This obviously increased profits and kept costs low.
The Aynsley family were wealthy but it was John Aynsley II who made sure his wealth was also used to improve peoples lives with public services being built such as a hospital and a park. He was keen to get children into school instead of work.
He treated his workers fairly and abolished the majority of unfair factory practices that disadvantaged them. He introduced the hourly rate of pay instead of pay per 12 china pieces. The firm was inaugurated as a partnership under the name of Star China in , the principals being H. For over twenty years this partnership continued and the business gradually laid the foundations upon which its present day prosperity has been built. Hundreds of factories employing thousands of workers.
Today only a handful are in business and the landscape has changed. We take a look at the six towns. These Staffordshire towns achieved world status not because there were large local sources of ivory clay and coal. It was the workers skill and craftsmanship were the main ingredients. In the middle of the 17th century, life was essentially rural. In Burslem, centre of the embryo pottery industry had 40 houses, Hanley had a population of about Yeoman farmers made pots on a domestic scale.
By the early 18th century some were involved in coal mining. Life was hard and the small relatively isolated communities ensured that a worker toiled for his master on a personal level, and socially the two lives overlapped.Collectible Tea Cups & Saucers - Vintage Bone China Tea Sets - Antique Tea Sets - Vintage Tea Cups
By the middle of the 18th century improved transport and production methods heralded a revolution in the pottery and other industries which was to drive a wedge between master and workman. Harsh realities of bad harvests and wars abroad, and a struggling economy were only keenly felt by the working people.
As early Trade Unions were run as underground organisations evidence of their existence in this early period is difficult to uncover. However, in hungry potters and colliers marched from Trent Hay Farm, between Stoke and Hanley, to Congleton demanding cheaper Corn.
It was a clear example of effective organised working class protest. North Staffordshire was built on three basic industries Pottery, Coal and Iron. All three had in common a paternalistic system, and all three demonstrate some similarities in the way the Trade Unions developed. The dominant industry, and influence on the Labour Movement has, however, quite clearly been the Pottery industry.
The union did not emerge from a vacuum. North Staffordshire had not been unaffected by the political outbursts of the late 18th century or between the passing of the Combination Acts and there repeal. Massey 22nd November H. Some workers had been imprisoned as a result of action by the employers, and the workers sought financial support from other workers in the area. The Parliamentary Reform Movement , which had substantial working class support, made itself felt in the Potteries. On 7th February , Joseph Johnson, the Manchester leader, gave a lecture at Lane End, and, on the 10th, addressed 5, — 6, people in Hanley.
Leaflets were distributed copies of which are in Hanley Museum. On 1st November , there was a large meeting in Hanley chaired by William Ridgway, a leading pottery manufacturer, to protest against the use of troops against a peaceful crowd in St. What was interesting about the Pottery industry was its typical size. Because of the lack of mechanisation surplus value could only be increased by the extensive use of labour.
As a result factories were large and employed child and female labour in appalling conditions. Wedgwood introduced, what was to become known as, the division of labour at the Etruria factory, and he introduced a Watt steam engine there even before they were introduced into the Lancashire textile mills. Siting the factory where he did was also determined by the fact that he knew it lay on the course of the proposed Trent and Mersey Canal.
Some factories were much bigger. By there were seven potbanks employing each between — 1, workers. The national average factory size at the time was Age 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Males 67 32 13 3 Females 86 42 25 23 8 2 Source: They are as a rule stunted in growth, ill shaped, and frequently ill-formed in the chest; they become prematurely old, and are certainly short lived; they are phlegmatic and bloodless, and exhibit their debility of constitution by obstinate attacks of dyspepsia, and disorders of the liver and kidneys and by rheumatism.
But of all the diseases they are especially prone to chest disease, to pneumonia, phthisis, bronchitis and asthma. Scrofula attacking the glands or bones or other parts of the body, is a disease of two-thirds or more of the potters….
That the degenerescence of the population of this district is not even greater than it is, is due to the constant recruiting from the adjacent country, and intermarriages with more healthy races.
Quoted in Karl Marx Capital Vol. I p Lawrence and Wishart Ed. The various interests and conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and more equalized, in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions of labor, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level.
The growing competition among the bourgeois, and the resulting commercial crises, make the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating.
The increasing improvement of machinery, ever more rapidly developing, makes their livelihood more and more precarious; the collisions between individual workmen and individual bourgeois take more and more the character of collisions between two classes.
Thereupon, the workers begin to form combinations trade unions against the bourgeois; they club together in order to keep up the rate of wages; they found permanent associations in order to make provision beforehand for these occasional revolts. Here and there, the contest breaks out into riots. Like most early unions the Potters Union was a craft union. It was amongst the skilled artisans whose education and wages allowed them to read and become acquainted with radical ideas that the Union first took root.
There are a number of reasons why the Potters Union grew rapidly during the first part of the 19th Century. For one thing there was the terrible conditions in the potbanks that have been described. Secondly, there was the history of radical ideas in the area, which were readily taken up by the journeymen potters.
But there were also factors concerning the way the factory was organised that encouraged Trade Union organisation. Reference has already been made to the size of the factories. Bringing large numbers of workers together thus ensured that the workers would discuss these radical ideas, be aware of their common condition, and more easily determine their interests as a class against the employers. As in other industries the relationship between piecework and a wide variety of products helped to focus the attention of the operative on the determination of wages.
Manufacturers issued price lists for the production of ware covering a phenomenal variety of products of all sizes at a large number of different stages of production. The nature of the production process and the variety of products opened up a whole range of areas of conflict as a focus for discontent.
Potmaking dominated the life of the community and made formal trade union organisation easy when demanded. The Journeymen Potters Union began in With winter and a trade depression, the strike failed and the union disintegrated, bringing unemployment and victimisation in its wake.
The rank and file were not very sympathetic to their leaders. In February a meeting was held in Hanley to discuss the Truck Acts, and one of the main speakers was Joseph Peake, one of the old leaders of the Journeymen Potters Union. A potter chaired the meeting, and the main speaker was John Doherty himself. This branch was the forerunner of a more general union of all the pottery trades, and by early the organisation of the potters was called simply the National Union of Operative Potters.
The union held its second Annual Delegate Meeting. From this point, the Union obtained its national reputation.
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Its membership stood at about 8,, of which 6, were in North Staffordshire. This represented about a third of the total workforce — a very high rate of unionisation.
He visited the Potteries twice in to meet the Union leaders and also corresponded with them. Throughout declare its persuasion, that the steps which have been taken to adjust matters between the said Manufacturers and their Workmen, would have been successful, and the List of prices been accepted, but for the influence of a System now in operation, which, under the pretence of defending the rights of workmen, destroys their free agency, keeps them in conflict with their masters, and imposes upon them suffering, when the causes thereof have ceased to exist.
The dispute dragged on, with the employers gradually breaking, until, in early Match, nearly all were back at work. Again the union had won a victory, but the bosses had sounded a warning of their willingness to fight. The big test of strength, between the Union and the employers, was to come in Good from Oven was a system of piece work payment whereby only pieces which were alright after they had been through the initial firing were counted for payment. The system did not affect all workers.
It mainly affected the hollow ware pressers and flat pressers. That is to say those who produced the cups, teapots etc. There were a whole series of reasons as to why the ware might emerge from firing faulty, from faulty mixture, improper firing to carelessness in carrying the moulds to the oven.
The main focus of attention, however, was the question of the Annual Hiring. Every Martinmas workers were hired under a contract of employment. These contracts made the workers into virtual serfs, because the contract tied them to the employer.
Workers who left an employer during the term of a contract were fined or imprisoned. The system was extremely useful for the employers to break strikes, and to exploit the workers. In the Summer of the Union drew up its own model agreement and set about enforcing it.
They used the same tactics they had used in the previous years — select a factory, withdraw key workers and ensure these could not be replaced, then encourage the laid off workers to bring legal actions against the employers. The employers responded by creating the Chamber of Commerce, and to use the lock-out once contracts had run out, and try to insert a clause into contracts allowing them to lay workers off in the event of a strike.
At first the Union was successful. The Chamber of Commerce responded with a lock-out and promise of financial support to the 14 factories. They wanted to last out until 5th September when negotiations for new contracts would begin, and when all the members of the Chamber of Commerce would join the lock-out. The union began to weaken suggesting that some workers go back. The employers refused to allow them back.
The union had classified employers in terms of which they thought would crack first. None, they thought, would last more than a month. In September, the Chamber of Commerce refused to negotiate with the Union. Sixty-four factories closed at Martinmas, throwing 20, workers out. No open negotiations took place until December, although there were behind the scenes attempts to resolve the strike.
By mid November the locked out workers were confronted by determined employers backed by troops and special constables. Workers, hired under new contracts, paid 5 shillings a week to support those on strike and locked out. Strike pay, in December, was 5 shillings for single workers and 6 shillings for married ones. They produced propaganda aimed at dividing the workers.
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But the union was gradually losing the battle. Although, individual agreements were being secured, with various employers, the Chamber of Commerce insisted on maintaining the lock-out, until all employers had secured a return to work on their terms.
The lock-out officially ended, on 27th January The combined strike and lock-out had lasted 20 weeks. Many Potters had suffered terribly, and the Union was irreparably weakened.
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A trade depression followed with many potters failing to regain employment. Union leaders were victimised and the union collapsed in miserable defeat. With the union defeated, the way was open for the employers to attack the workers. Conditions, for the workers, became noticeably worse. With the union defeated, the workers hostility turned to political solutions to their condition, in place of merely Trade Union struggle. In one sense, this was positive. It reflected a growing class-consciousness — an awareness that the political system must be changed to improve their condition.
In another sense, though, it was a step backward. The workers took up the cause of Chartism, and seemed to believe that obtaining the suffrage would be the answer to all their problems.
Experience since the working class has obtained the vote shows this to be false, and that although a fight on the political level, the creation of a workers party etc.
In September of , a Committee of pottery manufacturers put forward a new list of piece rate prices.
Their proposals were rejected by the Union, and a new committee of seven masters and six operatives established to draw up a new agreed list. However, the bosses soon began to break the new agreement. In July , three employers, in Tunstall, decided to stop paying the agreed rates, on the basis that they had not been universally applied. With the large number of small employers, it was impossible to make the rates universal.
The dispute with the employers continued beyond the normal setting on date of Martinmas.
In January , the employers established another committee to revise piece rate prices. Herbert Aynsley retired in and ownership of the business passed to Hugh. The decorative themes of the patterns found are numerous and varied and. Many of the designs dating back to the last century are deeply Sep 16, Sometimes for example the pattern wasnt registered, only the basic form. China Teacupscollection of different patterns.
This is an original set owned by my grandparents and best guess dating is circa but possibly Anywhere in the USA, Every Pattern, Any Condition. Is one of the oldest silversmiths in the United States, its roots dating back to Meanwhile, the UKs beleaguered pottery and china manufacturing industry.
Stoke-on-Trent company Aynsley China said it began manufacturing a line of fine bone china. It is waiting for a wedding date but some items are ready to be. August 04, Closing Date.
The canister boasts the Little Sweetheart pattern with an off-white china accented in exotic In the matter of china he describes at some length an innovation by the Pottery in the design of the article was.
Different styles with the Bells mark overprinting an Aynsley mark. Another sort is usually of a similar shape with a delicate floral transfer pattern called. Approximate date for the dropping of china-Scroll to a pair of beauties, the upper part inscribed with cyclical date.